El mayor productor : Albania

El mayor productor : Albania

El cultivo de cannabis pesa casi la mitad del PIB de Albania  ! la producción de toda la vida en el país balcánico, donde se convirtió en un medio de supervivencia para muchas personas. Y una fuente de corrupción.

  • Tirana (Albania), informe

El otoño pasado, las mismas imágenes se repite a diario en la televisión albanesa. Si bien la cosecha de cannabis estaba en su apogeo, la policía iba a atacar a zonas remotas y prender fuego a miles de plantas. Moderador de este humo jabón audiovisual, el gobierno socialdemócrata acogió el éxito de la  guerra contra las drogas  " . Con el apoyo de la Guardia di Finanza italiana, alrededor de 2,5 millones de plantones han sido destruidos en 2016. Sin embargo, la cultura está lejos de haber desaparecido. Al inicio de 2017, Europol y del Departamento de Estado UNIEN-estado aún designan a Albania como  el mayor productor en Europa  " .

El cannabis tiene sus raíces en la larga Albania. Bajo la dictadura comunista de Enver Hoxha (1944-1985), la cultura fue controlada por el estado. Incluso fue uno de los pocos productos exportados por este país muy aislado políticamente. Suiza apreciado las cualidades de la hierba de Albania y lo utilizó como una planta medicinal y campo farmacéutico. Después de la caída del régimen en 1991 y la década que siguió caótica, una generación de grupos criminales albaneses surgió en la década de 2000. Según Fabian Zhilla especializada en crimen organizado y fundador de la ONG Fundación Sociedad Abierta para Albania ,  estos nuevos actores, redes internacionales de los miembros, han abandonado el tráfico de armas y la trata de personas que favorecía a sus predecesores de la década de 1990 y ha invertido en el tráfico de drogas  " .

Un medio de supervivencia para muchos albaneses 

El pequeño pueblo de Lazarat, situada a pocos kilómetros de la frontera griega, entonces forjó una reputación internacional e incluso ganó el título de  reino Europea del cannabis  " . Bajo el control de traficantes, la ciudad está completamente dedicado a  oro verde  ", gran parte de sus 5.000 habitantes que se cultivan en los campos abiertos y patios traseros. El gobierno de la derecha, en el poder entre 2005 y 2013, cerró los ojos. Un informe italiano estima que la producción anual Lazarat se situó en 900 toneladas por año, para un volumen de negocio estimado en 4,5 mil millones de euros, es decir, casi un tercio del PIB de Albania. Una suma astronómica para un país pequeño, uno de los más pobres en el continente.

Con la elección en 2013 del socialista Edi Rama, la marea cambió para el pueblo. Un año después de convertirse en jefe de Estado, el Sr. Rama declaró la  guerra contra el narcotráfico  " y envió al ejército para un asalto cinco días, muy publicitados. fueron utilizados por los traficantes de 80 toneladas de marihuana y cantidades de armas incautadas una docena de personas detenidas. Entre ellos, sin embargo, no incluía ningún  pez grande  " . Muchos observadores también destacaron el calendario elegido para esta espectacular operación policial después de tres fracasos, Albania obtenido finalmente la UE inicie el procedimiento de integración.

cannabis plantación de Shkodra.

Pero la política Sr. Rama no se ha apoyado de manera sostenible.  La producción, una vez concentrada Lazarat hoy se encuentra dispersa en todo el país y, por lo tanto, fuera de control  ," dijo Fabian Zhilla. El cultivo de cannabis se ha convertido en los últimos años como un nuevo medio de supervivencia para muchos albaneses. En un país donde el 45,5  % de la población vive con menos de 5 € al día y donde la inmigración sigue siendo la única esperanza para muchos jóvenes, algunos optan por convertir al negocio más lucrativo que los bajos salarios ofrecidos por los centros de llamadas u hoteles. Con un kilo de cannabis equivalente a dos toneladas de trigo en alrededor de 250 €, la cultura intenta muchos agricultores en un país donde la población es rural y el 60  %. Como dice el policía enviado regularmente en los últimos años en las montañas del norte,  nuestras acciones de destrucción no disuaden a los agricultores y las pequeñas parcelas están aun número cada vez mayor  " .

 Es difícil imaginar que los políticos no deben participar  

Con un promedio de más de doscientos días de sol al año y los recursos de agua importantes, el país mediterráneo ofrece unas condiciones climáticas ideales para Cannabis sativa L., especialmente para una variedad holandesa con un ciclo de floración muy corto. Algunos de subsistencia parcelas agrícolas montañas y plantas vegetales o hierbas se convierten en producción. La legislación de Albania todavía es particularmente fuerte: el cultivo y transporte de cannabis se castiga con tres a quince años de prisión. Pero sin mucho efecto.

Porque si muchos agentes de policía están involucrados en el tráfico, sobre todo en el campo, Fabian Zhilla esta corrupción campo esconde otra.  Dado que la policía es una institución jerárquica, es difícil imaginar que los políticos no deben participar.  " En su último informe sobre el país, la Comisión de la UE para la ampliación  da la bienvenida a las recientes operaciones contra las plantaciones de cannabis  " pero  señaló que la policía y los fiscales no son capaces de identificar redes criminales responsables de la cultura de la droga  " . Una situación deploró los principales países de la región que apuntan a la falta de voluntad política de sus homólogos albaneses con regularidad. Antes de responder a la demanda en los Países Bajos, el Reino Unido, Alemania o Francia, el cannabis, sino también la heroína o la cocaína afgana, entra en la UE principalmente por Italia y por la vecina Grecia. Los medios de transporte son el jet privado burro a través de pequeñas lanchas rápidas.

La destrucción de plantaciones de cannabis a Shkodra.

Al final del año pasado, el caso de Kelmend Balili ha escaldado Atenas. Cualesquiera que sean los medios de comunicación lo llaman  Pablo Escobar de los Balcanes  " fue acusado por los tribunales griegos para organizar la exportación de drogas a sus países. Director de Transporte del distrito de Saranda de 2014 a mayo de 2016, no lejos de la frontera griega, habría beneficiado a sus lazos familiares con algunos políticos. Mientras que la justicia de Albania tiene casi siete meses para responder al mandato de la resolución griega Kelmend Balili no se encuentra. Más recientemente, un ex director de la Policía de Albania Antidrogas obtuvo asilo político en Suiza . Afectados por una solicitud de extradición por parte del gobierno de Albania, asegura que sus investigaciones son los culpables porque habrían dado lugar a cerca del ministro del Interior, Saimir Tahiri, director de lanza de hierro de la lucha contra el tráfico de drogas, y fue despedido recientemente.

La "  Europa británica  

Estos vínculos entre grupos criminales y las autoridades políticas y las colosales sumas generadas por el tráfico en cuestión. Unas semanas antes de las elecciones nacionales de junio, el Partido Democrático de Albania, el principal partido de la oposición, amenazaron con no participar, y boicotearon durante casi dos meses de trabajo parlamentario. Denunciando  la corrupción de un gobierno que transformó a Albania en Colombia de Europa  ", se afirma que la  formación de un gobierno técnico para garantizar la transparencia de las elecciones  " .

carga cannabis arrojados por la borda por los contrabandistas durante su detención se encuentran en las playas del país.

La importancia de cannabis dinero es consenso entre los diplomáticos extranjeros y comentaristas políticos albaneses. Fabian Xhilla,  ahora estamos cerca de una cantidad equivalente a la mitad de los PIB países. Los grupos involucrados han adquirido un poder económico importante y una gran inversión en la economía y la política  " .

Mientras que las discusiones se centraron en el aspecto político y represivo, el MP y el empresario Koço Kokedhima parece aislados en el panorama de los medios de Albania. Durante años, él era el único defensor de la legalización del cannabis, citando a los miles de puestos de trabajo creados en varios estados de Estados Unidos por la producción de cannabis con fines farmacéuticos y recreativas. Mientras que el consumo interno de Albania es anecdótica, que cuenta con las  cualidades reconocidas del cannabis de Albania  " y es cara pragmática un mercado valorado en  varios mil millones de euros  " .

Fuente: Jérôme André para Reporterre

Fotos: 
Chapo: Una plantación de cannabis en el norte de Albania © policía albanesa 
Destrucción: DR
Plantación: DR
Playa: © JA

https://reporterre.net

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